Name: 
 

USH-21



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Politics during the Gilded Age can best be characterized as having been
a.
corrupt.
b.
useless.
c.
honest.
d.
helpful.
 

 2. 

City and county politics in the late 1800s were influenced by organizations called
a.
political machines.
b.
political mobs.
c.
voting leagues.
d.
voting drives.
 

 3. 

After winning city elections in 1888, Tammany Hall rewarded its supporters with
a.
cash.
b.
jobs.
c.
reforms.
d.
alcohol.
 

 4. 

Which of the following best describes the spoils system?
a.
It eased citizens' distrust of corrupt politicians and political practices.
b.
It helped many untrained and unqualified workers get government jobs.
c.
It marked the conclusion of a cycle of major government reforms.
d.
It allowed skilled people to replace unskilled workers in civil service jobs.
 

 5. 

Politicians best confronted corruption in Washington during the Gilded Age by
a.
prosecuting political leaders whose parties had attempted to bribe voters.
b.
passing a law that established a new system for granting federal jobs.
c.
recruiting honest, reform-minded candidates to run for office.
d.
securing reform within the Democratic and Republican parties.
 

 6. 

City planners helped the urban poor during the Progressive era by
a.
paving streets and building bridges.
b.
solving the problems of waste disposal and impure water supplies.
c.
designing safer building codes and opening new public parks.
d.
passing laws requiring children to attend school.
 

 7. 

Progressives fought crime, disease, and poverty by
a.
defending criminals, treating the sick, and providing food and shelter to the poor.
b.
addressing the economic conditions that were at the root of these problems.
c.
getting lawyers to fight legal battles on behalf of those who could not defend themselves.
d.
getting muckraking journalists to write about those who were experiencing hardship.
 

 8. 

John Dewey’s education reforms sought to
a.
teach children to memorize lessons so they could increase their knowledge of mathematics, science, language, and history.
b.
give children critical thinking skills and problem-solving skills that would help them in everyday settings.
c.
train children in the scientific method in the hope of solving a national doctor shortage.
d.
push for citizenship, health, and job training to help children meet the demands of American life.
 

 9. 

Governor Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin began a program of reforms called the Wisconsin Idea, which set out to
a.
decrease the power of political machines and make state government more professional.
b.
increase the effectiveness of the spoils system and shrink government bureaucracy.
c.
run the government like a business and employ a commission form of governance.
d.
weed out corrupt political officials and make the federal government more powerful.
 

 10. 

The Seventeenth Amendment allowed
a.
Americans to vote directly for U.S. senators instead of having state legislatures vote for them.
b.
voters to recall unpopular senators by signing a petition to ask for a special vote.
c.
voters to propose that a state law become a federal law by collecting signatures on a petition.
d.
Americans to vote using secret ballots designed by the government rather than political parties.
 

 11. 

Governor Robert M. La Follette attempted to make state politicians accountable to voters by giving the public access to information about
a.
donors who contributed money to politicians.
b.
politicians’ use of public funds.
c.
votes cast by politicians while in office.
d.
politicians’ connections to political machines.
 

 12. 

Child labor continued even after the reforms of the 1910s because
a.
greedy factory owners lied about workers' ages.
b.
poor families needed the income, however little.
c.
corruption made government monitoring useless.
d.
the courts established high child wage rates.
 

 13. 

What did the federal courts do to ease the conditions of child laborers in the 1910s?
a.
set the minimum wage for children at $4.50 per hour
b.
suspended all tax breaks for factories and mines using child labor
c.
limited the hours a child could work to five per day
d.
banned interstate shipments of products made with child labor
 

 14. 

Who was William "Big Bill" Haywood?
a.
corrupt boss of New York City political machine Tammany Hall
b.
muckraking author of How the Other Half Lives, on tenement life
c.
capitalist president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
d.
socialist founder of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
 

 15. 

In the 1908 case of Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court decided that it could uphold a law limiting women’s working hours on the grounds that
a.
women’s bodies were the property of the state.
b.
women should be working fewer hours than men.
c.
women’s health was a matter of public concern.
d.
women should be spending more time at home.
 

 16. 

What is one of the fundamental differences between capitalism and socialism?
a.
Under socialism, the government owns the factories and raw materials.
b.
Under socialism, unions are organized by industry rather than skill level.
c.
Under capitalism, the government can interfere in the marketplace and set prices.
d.
Under capitalism, unions use collective bargaining rather than aggressive tactics.
 

 17. 

Why were business leaders opposed to granting women the right to vote?
a.
They thought women voters would support minimum wage and child labor laws.
b.
They thought women should focus on the prohibition of alcohol.
c.
They thought women voters would support government anticorruption efforts.
d.
They thought women should be mothers and homemakers, not voters.
 

 18. 

The task of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was to
a.
organize barmaids to fight for equal pay with bartenders.
b.
pass local and state laws restricting the sale of alcohol.
c.
found 10,000 branch offices of an alcoholic treatment program.
d.
storm into saloons and smash bottles with axes.
 

 19. 

In 1890 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony founded the
a.
National Woman's Party (NWP).
b.
National Organization for Women (NOW).
c.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).
d.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU).
 

 20. 

Passed in 1919, the Nineteenth Amendment
a.
instituted a federal income tax.
b.
prohibited the sale and use of alcoholic beverages.
c.
granted women the right to vote.
d.
allowed voters to elect senators.
 

 21. 

Who encouraged African Americans to improve their economic and educational opportunities as the best means of fighting discrimination?
a.
Ida B. Wells
b.
W.E.B. Du Bois
c.
Booker T. Washington
d.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
 

 22. 

African American reformers’ interests were different from those of white reformers, who were
a.
less concerned about injustice.
b.
more concerned with economic issues.
c.
less aware of segregation.
d.
more focused on education.
 

 23. 

In its first decade, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) brought attention to racial inequality by
a.
honoring journalist Ida B.Wells.
b.
using the courts to fight grandfather clauses.
c.
publishing a journal called The Struggle.
d.
getting support from the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU).
 

 24. 

Why did many Native Americans feel torn about accepting aid from the Progressive movement?
a.
They did not want to adopt white culture.
b.
They wanted to stay on their reservations.
c.
They prided themselves on self-reliance.
d.
They did not trust the federal court system.
 

 25. 

The main reason for the rise in Mexican immigration between 1901 and 1930 was that Mexicans
a.
could cross the U.S. border with relative ease.
b.
became a key part of the Southwest's economy.
c.
could occupy areas that once belonged to Mexico.
d.
immigrated with their children and extended families.
 

 26. 

The Pure Food and Drug Act protected consumers by
a.
prohibiting food and drug companies from monopolizing certain markets.
b.
requiring expiration dates be printed on all food and drug packaging.
c.
instituting price regulations limiting corporate profits on food and drugs.
d.
banning the sale and transport of mislabeled or contaminated food and drugs.
 

 27. 

Study the map below and answer the question that follows.

mc027-1.jpg

Based on the information presented, which of these conclusions can be drawn?
a.
Roosevelt was the incumbent candidate, fighting to keep a seat he already held.
b.
Taft spent far less money on his campaign than the other candidates did.
c.
It is possible for a state to split its electoral votes rather than give them all to one candidate.
d.
It is impossible for a candidate from a third party to beat a Democrat or a Republican.
 

 28. 

For what measures did President Woodrow Wilson push soon after taking office?
a.
banking reform and tariff revision
b.
conservation and an equal rights amendment
c.
big business regulations and a direct income tax
d.
women's suffrage and temperance
 

 29. 

What was William Howard Taft’s main criticism of President Theodore Roosevelt?
a.
Roosevelt claimed more power for his presidency than the Constitution allowed.
b.
Roosevelt opposed socialism and favored big business regulation.
c.
Roosevelt hurt conservation efforts by leasing public lands to big business.
d.
Roosevelt transferred too much land into government reserves.
 

 30. 

William Howard Taft lost the support of Progressives before the election of 1912 because he
a.
refused to create a Federal Reserve to regulate the economy.
b.
failed to reduce all tariffs and lower prices for consumers.
c.
refused to use income taxes to pay for social programs.
d.
failed to strengthen a single federal law against monopolies.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 31. 

During the Gilded Age, American reformers called for an end to ___________________________, the practice of giving government jobs to supporters after a candidate wins an election. (nepotism/the spoils system)
 

 

 32. 

The _______________________ allowed people to approve or reject a law that the government had already passed. (referendum/ballot initiative)
 

 

 33. 

The _____________________ Amendment helped expand voting rights by allowing voters, and not state legislatures, to directly elect senators. (Seventeenth/Eighteenth)
 

 

 34. 

A union member might have claimed that ____________________ was unjust system because its emphasis on competition caused managers to consider profits more important than safe working conditions. (capitalism/socialism)
 

 

 35. 

__________________________ founded the National Woman’s Party (NWP). (Alice Paul/Julia Ward Howe)
 

 

 36. 

The ________________________ Amendment gave women the right to vote. (Nineteenth/Seventeenth)
 

 

 37. 

_________________________ encouraged African Americans to improve their economic and educational opportunities rather than fight discrimination. ________________________, on the other hand, took a more direct approach to fighting injustice by publicizing cases of racial prejudice. (W.E.B. Du Bois, Booker T. Washington/Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois)
 

 

 38. 

In its first decade, the ______________________ brought attention to racial inequality by using the courts to fight grandfather clauses that had been used to prevent African Americans in the South from voting. (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People/Alliance for African American Rights)
 

 

 39. 

In 1902 President Roosevelt threatened to take over the nation’s coal mines unless managers agreed to settle their disputes with striking workers through a formal process called __________________. (arbitration/mediation)
 

 

 40. 

_________________________’s reforms angered progressives because they did not destroy trusts completely. (William Jennings Bryan/William Howard Taft)
 

 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
William Marcy Tweed
b.
National Consumers’ League
c.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
d.
Sixteenth Amendment
e.
W.E.B. Du Bois
f.
William “Big Bill” Haywood
g.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
h.
Seventeenth Amendment
i.
Eighteenth Amendment
j.
workers’ compensation laws
k.
Ida B. Wells
l.
Wisconsin idea
 

 41. 

led the socialist union known as the Industrial Workers of the World
 

 42. 

co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
 

 43. 

set up a merit system for assigning government jobs backed by President Chester A. Arthur
 

 44. 

may have stolen up to $200 million from New York City while boss of Tammany Hall
 

 45. 

allowed Americans to vote directly for U.S. senators
 

 46. 

allowed the federal government to impose direct taxes on citizens’ incomes
 

 47. 

drew attention to the lynching of African Americans
 

 48. 

fought for local and state laws banning the sale of alcohol
 

 49. 

Robert M. La Follette's plan to decrease the power of political machines and make state government more professional
 

 50. 

major lobbying group for women’s and children’s labor issues
 



 
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