Name: 
 

USH--18



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following characterized the boomtowns of the West?
a.
high birth rates
b.
sudden growth
c.
tightly clustered houses
d.
underground gold mines
 

 2. 

The mining boom began with the
a.
invention of dynamite by Alfred Nobel.
b.
discovery of the Comstock Lode.
c.
founding of the National Union of Miners.
d.
passage of the Homestead Act.
 

 3. 

What pushed the western boundary of the American frontier to the Pacific Ocean after the Civil War?
a.
construction of the intercontinental railroad
b.
discovery of silver and gold mines in Nevada
c.
donation of the Great Plains to war veterans
d.
annexation of the state of California to the Union
 

 4. 

Which characteristic of the Texas longhorn made it significant to the rise of the Cattle Kingdom?
a.
little need for water and an ability to survive in harsh weather
b.
a diet of grain, which left grasslands available for grazing sheep
c.
meat that fetched a high price in overseas markets
d.
strength to handle northward cattle drives
 

 5. 

What 1874 invention contributed to the end of the Open Range?
a.
barbed wire
b.
the western lariat
c.
placer mining
d.
the western saddle
 

 6. 

Who used the Chisholm Trail, and why?
a.
cowboys, to drive cattle
b.
the Pony Express, to transport mail
c.
Paiute Indians, to hunt buffalo
d.
the U.S. Army, to build forts
 

 7. 

Which competitor put the Pony Express out of business?
a.
the U.S. cavalry
b.
the railroad
c.
telephones
d.
telegrams
 

 8. 

What was the transcontinental railroad meant to connect?
a.
the southern United States to the North
b.
the eastern United States to the West
c.
Canada to the southern United States
d.
Canada to Mexico and Central America
 

 9. 

What did the federal government do to assist railway companies in the construction of the transcontinental railroad?
a.
granted them millions of acres of public land that they could sell for cash
b.
used taxpayer dollars to pay-off the debts they incurred during construction
c.
decided not to charge them taxes on land and materials bought for the project
d.
promised them exclusive contracts to be the official carriers of the U.S. mail
 

 10. 

Study the quotation below and answer the question that follows.

“Governor Stanford, president of the Central Pacific, took the sledge [hammer], and the first time he struck he missed the spike and hit the rail. What a howl went up! Irish, Chinese, Mexicans, and everybody yelled with delight.”
—Alexander Toponce, quoted in A Treasury of Railroad Folklore, edited by B.A. Botkin and Alvin F. Harlo

What can be inferred from this passage about the completion of the first transcontinental railroad?
a.
Labor unions boycotted the railroad inauguration ceremony.
b.
The governor of California was present at the ceremony.
c.
Immigrants played an important role in building the railroad.
d.
The golden spike was hammered in during a workers’ protest.
 

 11. 

In 1866, the United States demanded land from the Sioux. As a result, Sioux leader Sitting Bull criticized the United States for doing what?
a.
forcing a nonviolent people into a violent battle
b.
building forts across Indian homelands
c.
granting other Native Americans U.S. citizenship
d.
breaking the promises it had made in treaties
 

 12. 

How did the Plains Indians survive?
a.
trapping beaver
b.
gathering roots
c.
breeding horses
d.
hunting buffalo
 

 13. 

What did the 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge establish?
a.
War in Texas between the U.S. army and the Comanche would end.
b.
U.S. forts built in Sioux territories would be destroyed.
c.
Reservations for southern Plains Indians would be created.
d.
Hunting grounds for southern Plains Indians would be extended.
 

 14. 

The Treaty of Fort Laramie and similar treaties designed to keep the peace between the United States and American Indians
a.
had lasting success.
b.
had short-lived success.
c.
failed immediately.
d.
were never enforced.
 

 15. 

In the context of the history of the West, what is a reservation?
a.
a condition upon which the carrying out of a treaty depends
b.
a tract of public land set aside for Native Americans
c.
an area designated for Native Americans to breed livestock
d.
a promise to have something held for personal use
 

 16. 

Why did Plains Indians fight against the establishment of reservations?
a.
Pioneers’ trails crossed over the reservations.
b.
Hunting was not permitted on the reservations.
c.
The reservations had to host different tribes.
d.
The reservations were too far from water.
 

 17. 

Why did some members of the peaceful Nez Percé tribe living in Oregon attack and kill the local settlers?
a.
Government authorities ordered the Nez Percé to move.
b.
White pioneers had settled on the Nez Percé reservation.
c.
The Nez Percé were attacked by U.S. troops.
d.
The Nez Percé wanted to escape to Mexico.
 

 18. 

What led up to the Long Walk of 1864?
a.
Geronimo surrendered to the U.S. Army.
b.
Raids by U.S. troops left the Navajo without food and shelter, forcing them to surrender.
c.
General Custer’s troops attacked the Navajo.
d.
U.S. negotiators tricked the Navajo into selling their land in New Mexico, forcing them to move.
 

 19. 

Who were called “buffalo soldiers” by the Plains Indians?
a.
U.S. infantry
b.
Plains Indian rebels
c.
General Custer’s troops
d.
African American cavalry
 

 20. 

In 1874, Lieutenant George Armstrong Custer insisted that the Sioux give up their reservation land in the Black Hills of the Dakotas because
a.
American cattle ranchers wanted to expand there.
b.
the Union Pacific Railroad wanted to build there.
c.
his troops had discovered gold there.
d.
the Sioux had been defeated in the battle of Little Bighorn.
 

 21. 

The Massacre at Wounded Knee was significant because it
a.
marked the worst defeat the U.S. army suffered in the Great Plains.
b.
initiated the first major conflict between an Indian tribe and reservation police.
c.
ruined the career of General Custer, who had to retire from the army.
d.
resulted in the death of Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull.
 

 22. 

What reform was brought about by the 1887 Dawes General Allotment Act?
a.
U.S. citizenship for Native Americans
b.
private land ownership for Native Americans
c.
abolition of the religious movement of the Ghost Dance
d.
the annexation by the federal government of two-thirds of Indian land
 

 23. 

In the late 1870s, Paiute Indian Sarah Winnemucca
a.
stirred a revolt against the settlers.
b.
gave lectures on problems of the reservation system.
c.
proposed the Dawes General Allotment Act.
d.
protested the repression of the Ghost Dance movement.
 

 24. 

What was the most likely reason for an unmarried woman to move west in the 1860s?
a.
The Morrill Act granted her a job.
b.
The Homestead Act granted her land.
c.
The western states had women’s suffrage.
d.
The western states made loans to female entrepreneurs.
 

 25. 

Dry farming is the
a.
cultivation of crops during droughts
b.
conversion of fields into grazing land
c.
growing of crops that do not need irrigation
d.
development of fields far from water sources
 

 26. 

Study the charts below and answer the question that follows.

mc026-1.jpg

According to the charts, which of the following is true?
a.
Wheat production increased the most in the late 1860s.
b.
Wheat prices diminished by 50 percent between 1875 and 1880.
c.
Wheat production and wheat prices increased between 1866 and 1880.
d.
Wheat production increased by 100 percent between 1866 and 1875.
 

 27. 

What was the significance of the Panic of 1893 to the Populists?
a.
People began to support their propositions for economic reform.
b.
It marked the end of the Populist Party.
c.
Populists began to join the Democrats.
d.
It inspired farmers’ alliances and raised political hopes.
 

 28. 

The National Grange was an organization created on behalf of
a.
regulators.
b.
educators.
c.
farmers.
d.
businessmen.
 

 29. 

Why did Populism fail?
a.
The Democrats lost the 1896 presidential race.
b.
Local chapters could not afford to sponsor the movement.
c.
The government lacked power to enforce rail rate regulation.
d.
The new immigrant population of settlers opposed it.
 

 30. 

What was the main cause for the economic deflation of the late 1800s?
a.
New European immigrants worked for low wages.
b.
Gold miners went on strike and stopped mining.
c.
Paper money began to be backed by silver in the treasury.
d.
The money supply grew more slowly than the nation’s population.
 

 31. 

What did the Populist Party do to gain workers’ votes?
a.
support an eight-hour workday and limits on immigration
b.
promise more jobs to immigrants
c.
propose the privatization of railroads
d.
support the Republican Party in the 1896 election
 

 32. 

Why might Farmers’ Alliances such as the Populists propose limits on immigration?
a.
It cost extra tax money and services to help immigrants get established.
b.
Non English-speaking immigrants would slow production and be hard to train.
c.
Immigrants would offer greater skills to the labor force than native-born workers.
d.
Farmers were forced to compete with immigrants for jobs.
 

 33. 

Who were Exodusters?
a.
settlers who had moved west and arrived with reddish dirt on their faces and clothes
b.
former slaves who had made a mass migration from the South
c.
American Indians who lived in shelters carved into limestone outcroppings
d.
miners who exited from the shafts in which they worked all day
 

 34. 

The Oklahoma land rush signified the
a.
end of the frontier.
b.
strength of the Populist Party.
c.
rise of deflation.
d.
pointlessness of the Farmers’ Alliance.
 

 35. 

To whom had the 11 million acres of land opened in the Oklahoma land rush belonged?
a.
Lakota Sioux Indians
b.
southern Plains Indians
c.
Creek and Seminole Indians
d.
Navajo and Nez Percé Indians
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 36. 

In the Far West, the United States broke its promise to let the peaceful _______________ Indians keep their land in Oregon. (Nez Percé/Navajo)
 

 

 37. 

U.S. troops attacked the ______________________ when they refused to move to a reservation. Troops then took captives on a 300-mile march called the __________________________. (Navajo, Long Walk/Iroquois, Trail of Tears)
 

 

 38. 

_________________________, a leader of the Lakota Sioux, protested Lieutenant George Armstrong Custer’s insistence that his people sell the Black Hills. (Geronimo/Sitting Bull)
 

 

 39. 

To gain workers’ votes, the ___________________ backed limits on immigration. (Populist Party/National Grange)
 

 

 40. 

The _____________________ promoted the free and unlimited coinage of silver because the introduction of silver currency would have reversed deflation, raising prices and farmers’ incomes. (U.S. Mint/Populists)
 

 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
Comstock Lode
b.
Long Walk
c.
Homestead Act
d.
Morrill Act
e.
golden spike
f.
Ghost Dance
g.
Dawes General Allotment Act
h.
sodbusters
i.
Exodusters
j.
Populists
k.
Annie Bidwell
l.
Laura Ingalls Wilder
 

 41. 

connected the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroad lines
 

 42. 

required states to sell land and build colleges of agriculture and engineering with the profits
 

 43. 

religious movement predicting the arrival of paradise for Native Americans
 

 44. 

300-mile march the Navajo were forced to go on to reach a reservation in New Mexico
 

 45. 

large group of African Americans who left the South to go to Kansas in 1879
 

 46. 

promoted the free and unlimited coinage of silver
 

 47. 

gave government-owned land to small farmers
 

 48. 

farmers working the tough soil of the Plains
 

 49. 

established private land ownership for Native Americans
 

 50. 

discovery that started the mining boom
 



 
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