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Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Many Americans wanted George Washington to be president because he
a.
was seen as an honest leader.
b.
urged them to vote for him.
c.
passed the Judiciary Act of 1789.
d.
had a popular wife named Martha.
 

 2. 

Republican Motherhood was the belief that
a.
First Ladies must take an active role in politics.
b.
presidential households should be run with style.
c.
women should teach their children to be good citizens.
d.
women did not need time or money to get an education.
 

 3. 

The electoral college is a
a.
body of delegates from each state that casts the deciding votes for president.
b.
school for the advanced study of voting practices and political campaigning.
c.
group of voters hand-picked for cabinet positions by the president-elect.
d.
name given to all voters who cast ballots in presidential elections.
 

 4. 

The new federal government in America took actions that would set an example for the future. In George Washington’s words, these exemplary actions “will serve to establish a
a.
procedure.”
b.
precursor.”
c.
policy.”
d.
precedent.”
 

 5. 

The Judiciary Act of 1789 was passed by Congress to set up a system of federal courts because he believed that the
a.
stability and success of the national government depended on the interpretation and execution of its laws.
b.
problems of crime and violence could be prevented by extending the reach of the judicial branch.
c.
judicial branch was more important than the executive and legislative branches.
d.
executive and legislative branches would not have time to make good judgments.
 

 6. 

In general, Congress created departments in the executive branch to address what type of policy?
a.
national policy
b.
foreign policy
c.
economic policy
d.
tax policy
 

 7. 

In 1790, how did Americans feel about the future of their new government?
a.
Their expectations were high because they trusted their leaders to protect their economic and security interests.
b.
They were uncertain because they didn’t know whether the democratic experiment would succeed.
c.
Their expectations were low because they questioned the president’s honesty and disliked the First Lady.
d.
They worried because they knew the nation was deep in debt from the Revolutionary War.
 

 8. 

Which statement best characterizes American farmers in 1790?
a.
They didn’t want government interfering in their daily lives.
b.
They took every opportunity to organize and participate in community events.
c.
They wanted to have their tax money distributed to those less fortunate.
d.
They refused to accept any law designed to protect them from foreign rivals.
 

 9. 

How did New York City represent the spirit of the nation in 1790?
a.
New York was a quiet city with a small population.
b.
The city recovered after being damaged during the revolution.
c.
New York was primarily a rural area covered with farms.
d.
The city was dependent on British rule.
 

 10. 

The national debt can best be defined as the amount of money owed
a.
to the nation by the nation’s citizens and by foreign countries.
b.
by the nation to foreign countries and the nation’s citizens.
c.
to the federal government by individual states.
d.
by the federal government to domestic debtors.
 

 11. 

Which of the following actions was part of Alexander Hamilton’s economic plan?
a.
replacing interest-bearing bonds with low-value bonds
b.
taxing domestic goods and adding tariffs to foreign imports
c.
eliminating the national mint to add more cash to the economy
d.
requiring states to pay their Revolutionary War debts
 

 12. 

People who buy items at low prices and hope to sell them for a profit are called
a.
investors
b.
representatives
c.
bondholders
d.
speculators
 

 13. 

On which of the following issues did Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson agree?
a.
how to address the national debt
b.
how to repay the value of bonds
c.
whether or not to move the capital
d.
whether or not to limit the federal government
 

 14. 

Alexander Hamilton’s vision of a robust economy depended on the contributions of business people and manufacturers, but Thomas Jefferson’s vision placed greater emphasis on
a.
teachers.
b.
farmers.
c.
merchants.
d.
doctors.
 

 15. 

Alexander Hamilton believed in a flexible interpretation of the Constitution while Thomas Jefferson believed in a
a.
loose construction.
b.
soft construction.
c.
strict construction.
d.
tight construction.
 

 16. 

“Loose construction” is best defined as the idea that the
a.
Constitution need not be interpreted in the context of the whole.
b.
federal government can take reasonable actions in special cases as long as they are not specifically forbidden by the Constitution.
c.
Constitution is flexible, enabling politicians to stretch it in order to deal with new situations.
d.
Constitution allows only necessary means to deal with new situations and should not be stretched merely because politicians find it convenient.
 

 17. 

George Washington’s statement that America would not take sides in disputes between warring European countries was called the
a.
Swiss Pact.
b.
Neutrality Proclamation.
c.
Peace Treaty of 1793.
d.
Teaty of Greenville.
 

 18. 

Some members of Congress criticized George Washington’s pronouncement about staying out of disputes between European countries because they felt
a.
the president was overstepping the bounds of his authority.
b.
there was a clear favorite in the dispute between France and Great Britain.
c.
it would be best for national security if the United States forged clear alliances with foreign nations.
d.
that the president was not knowledgeable enough to make decisions on foreign affairs.
 

 19. 

As secretary of state Thomas Jefferson criticized U.S. policy toward France because he
a.
disagreed with George Washington’s stance on foreign alliances because he was sympathetic toward France.
b.
believed the United States owed France support since France backed it during the Revolutionary War.
c.
wanted to undermine Alexander Hamilton’s pro-British stance and reduce his rival’s influence on the president’s foreign policy.
d.
was eager to quit his position in George Washington’s cabinet and saw the French issue as a convenient excuse.
 

 20. 

Pinckney’s Treaty addressed settlers’ disputes over the Florida border with which country?
a.
France
b.
Britain
c.
Spain
d.
Mexico
 

 21. 

Which statement best expresses George Washington’s attitude toward Jay’s Treaty?
a.
He did not like it but believed it was the best that could be done.
b.
He urged the Senate not to approve it in hopes of a better compromise.
c.
He felt it was the best possible solution to the British threat to U.S. neutrality.
d.
He was glad to pay off the country’s pre-Revolutionary debts to the British.
 

 22. 

In the 1790s, the United States signed a number of treaties that would outline its boundaries and expand its territories. Which of the following is such a treaty?
a.
the Treaty of Little Turtle
b.
the Treaty of the Northwest Territories
c.
the Treaty of Greenville
d.
the Treaty of Bastille
 

 23. 

The main threat faced by Americans in the Northwest Territory was
a.
tornadoes that destroyed much of the farmland.
b.
Native American tribes supplied with guns and ammunition by the British.
c.
Native American attacks on supply lines into the territories.
d.
harsh winter conditions and inadequate forts.
 

 24. 

Which general led the United States to victory in the Northwest Territory?
a.
Anthony Wayne
b.
Josiah Harmar
c.
Arthur St. Clair
d.
George Washington
 

 25. 

How did the Whiskey Rebellion end?
a.
Tax collectors tarred and feathered the rebels before Washington’s army arrived.
b.
The rebels hid their stores of whiskey before Washington’s army arrived.
c.
Most of the rebels fled before Washington’s army arrived.
d.
Most of the rebels formed a militia and battled Washington’s army.
 

 26. 

Which of the following contributed to the Whiskey Rebellion?
a.
The federal government was overprotective of the settlers.
b.
Spain was blocking trade along the Mississippi River.
c.
Farmers could not afford the tax on whiskey.
d.
Farmers found whiskey difficult to transport.
 

 27. 

President Washington personally led the militia against the westerners in the Whiskey Rebellion because he believed
a.
individual farmers should have to pay off the national debt through taxes.
b.
the federal government was owed taxes for providing settlers with protection and opportunities for trade.
c.
people needed to understand the constitutional right of Congress to institute tax laws.
d.
the rebellion might spark similar incidents of violence.
 

 28. 

In his farewell address George Washington warned against
a.
observing good faith and justice towards all nations.
b.
burdening future generations with debt.
c.
establishing political unity within the nation.
d.
maintaining the institution of slavery.
 

 29. 

“The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred … from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation … to maintain inviolate [unchanging] the relations of peace and amity [friendship] towards other nations.”

—George Washington, from his Farewell Address

Which statement accurately paraphrases George Washington’s views?
a.
Washington believed his plan was safest for the long run.
b.
Washington believed that the United States would be torn apart by political parties.
c.
Washington felt any just and humane nation would practice neutrality.
d.
Washington felt the United States would lose its freedom if it tolerated unfriendly neighbors.
 

 30. 

According to George Washington in his Farewell Address, what was the key to national success?
a.
political unity
b.
neutrality in foreign policy
c.
economic security
d.
checks and balances
 

 31. 

Which of these slogans might a Federalist have shouted at a party rally?
a.
Central Government over All!
b.
States Rule!
c.
Power to the People!
d.
Jefferson for President!
 

 32. 

The presidential election of 1796 differed from prior American elections because there were
a.
conventions.
b.
debates.
c.
multiple candidates.
d.
Democrats and Republicans.
 

 33. 

The first political party division in the United States was between
a.
Democrats and Republicans.
b.
Liberals and Conservatives.
c.
Democratic-Republicans and Federalists.
d.
Federalists and Royalists.
 

 34. 

How was a vice president chosen in 1796?
a.
He ran alongside the presidential candidate.
b.
He was elected by popular vote.
c.
He was the presidential candidate who came in second.
d.
He was appointed by the president-elect.
 

 35. 

Who became vice president as a result of the 1796 election?
a.
Thomas Jefferson
b.
John Adams
c.
James Madison
d.
Alexander Hamilton
 

 36. 

During the presidency of John Adams, three French agents would discuss a treaty with the United States only in exchange for a bribe. The incident came to be known as the
a.
ABC Talks
b.
ABC Incident
c.
XYZ Event
d.
XYZ Affair
 

 37. 

Which best describes President John Adams’s attitude toward going to war with France?
a.
He was eager to go to war despite the cost.
b.
He wanted war, but would not declare it without congressional approval.
c.
He thought war might be unavoidable and gave up on hopes for a treaty.
d.
He refused to declare war despite protests by members of his own party.
 

 38. 

Why did John Adams face a challenging task as president?
a.
He was not perceived as being honest or hard-working.
b.
People were angry because Adams declared war on France.
c.
He did not win the presidential election fairly.
d.
Adams replaced George Washington whom people adored.
 

 39. 

The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by the Federalists to
a.
protect the government from its critics.
b.
increase government power.
c.
imprison foreigners.
d.
punish French speakers.
 

 40. 

Republicans’ main criticism of the Alien and Sedition Acts was that they
a.
gave too much power to the government.
b.
took too many rights from foreigners.
c.
went against the American policy of neutrality.
d.
forced the press to publish falsehoods.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 41. 

The new federal government in America took actions intended to set an example for the future. In George Washington’s words, these exemplary actions would “serve to establish a ____________.” (precedent/mandate)
 

 

 42. 

The _______________ can be best defined as the amount of money owed by the nation to foreign countries and to the nation’s citizens. (gross domestic product/national debt)
 

 

 43. 

A ________________________ adds tax to the price of imported goods to shield domestic products from foreign competition. (protective tariff/value added tax)
 

 

 44. 

______________________’s vision of a robust economy depended on the contributions of business people and manufacturers, while _______________________’s vision put greater emphasis on farmers.
(Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson/Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton)
 

 

 45. 

Thomas Jefferson believed in a interpretation of the Constitution known as ________________ construction. (strict/loose)
 

 

 46. 

According to Alexander Hamilton the reason the United States needed to found a national _______________ was to secure the national economy. (mint/bank)
 

 

 47. 

In 1790, before General Anthony Wayne took command of the American army in the West, Miami chief __________________ successfully led an alliance of Native Americans against U.S. forces. (Tecumseh/ Little Turtle)
 

 

 48. 

President George Washington personally led the militia against the offenders during _____________________ because he believed people needed to understand the constitutional right of Congress to institute tax laws. (the Whiskey Rebellion/Bacon’s Rebellion)
 

 

Short Answer
 

 49. 

Which Miami chief successfully led an alliance of Native Americans against U.S. forces in 1790?
 

 50. 

Which two political parties competed in the 1796 presidential election?
 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
Judiciary Act of 1789
b.
Pinckney’s Treaty
c.
Alien and Sedition Acts
d.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
e.
Jay’s Treaty
f.
French Revolution
g.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
h.
Treaty of Greenville
i.
Bank of the United States
j.
XYZ Affair
 

 51. 

settled disputes between the United States and Britain that arose in the early 1790s
 

 52. 

settled border and trade disputes between the United States and Spain
 

 53. 

supported the idea that states could challenge the federal government
 

 54. 

gave the United States claim to most Indian lands in the Northwest Territory
 

 55. 

began on July 14, 1789 with the storming of the Bastille
 

 56. 

passed by the Federalist-controlled Congress in 1798 to crush opposition to war
 

 57. 

Congress enacted its charter in February 1791 to make the economy more stable
 

 58. 

bribery scandal that caused Federalists in Congress to call for war with France
 

 59. 

established the federal court system and the location of the courts
 

 60. 

a victory for General Wayne’s troops on August 20, 1794
 



 
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