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NHPT5



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The purpose of Magna Carta was to
a.
shift power from the British monarchy to the British people
b.
require British royalty to obey the same laws as the British people
c.
limit the power of the people in the British Parliament
d.
give members of Parliament the same powers as British monarchs
 

 2. 

Magna Carta inspired the founders of American government to
a.
eliminate the power of the king and queen.
b.
subject government officials to the rule of law.
c.
centralize power in the hands of one leader.
d.
represent the people in a parliamentary body.
 

 3. 

Thomas Jefferson’s Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom declared that
a.
governments had to punish religious discrimination.
b.
governments were responsible for funding churches.
c.
no person who worked on behalf of a religious institution had to pay taxes.
d.
no person could be forced to attend a church or pay taxes to a church.
 

 4. 

The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was one of the earliest expressions of which basic principle of American government?
a.
equality of opportunity
b.
freedom of speech
c.
separation of church and state
d.
due process of law
 

 5. 

The Second Continental Congress sent the Articles of Confederation to each state for ratification, which means that every state had to
a.
give their official approval to the Articles.
b.
pledge allegiance to the Articles.
c.
adapt the Articles to the state’s constitution.
d.
make the Articles known to the population.
 

 6. 

Ratification of the Articles of Confederation was slowed down by conflicts over the
a.
number of votes each colony would have in Congress.
b.
use of colonial soldiers by Congress.
c.
claims to western lands made by many colonies.
d.
role of the judiciary in colonial government.
 

 7. 

As drafted by the Second Continental Congress the Articles of Confederation established the
a.
process of electing representatives to the Congress.
b.
first national government of the United States.
c.
requirements for being president of the Congress.
d.
three branches of the United States government.
 

 8. 

Why did Congress decide to pass the Land Ordinance of 1785, which divided western lands into townships?
a.
Congress wanted to create a region where slavery was banned.
b.
Native Americans were illegally exploiting territories in the western lands.
c.
Congress wanted to sell lots to the public to pay the nation’s debts.
d.
Colonial governments had already expanded their borders into western lands.
 

 9. 

How did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 affect the practice of slavery in the Northwest Territory?
a.
It banned the use of slaves.
b.
It determined a fixed wage for slaves.
c.
It regulated the slave trade.
d.
It granted slaves access to public education.
 

 10. 

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established which procedure?
a.
election of state governors by the people
b.
admission of a state into the Union
c.
drafting of male citizens into state militia
d.
collection of property taxes from state residents
 

 11. 

The Articles of Confederation made it difficult for Congress to protect the nation against foreign threats by
a.
placing high tariffs on imports of military supplies.
b.
not creating a national budget for defense spending.
c.
declaring it impossible to force states to provide soldiers.
d.
not instituting a mandatory draft.
 

 12. 

Which of the following statements best summarizes the trade relationship between Britain and America in the late 1700s?
a.
Britain placed high tariffs on imports and exports, which forced Americans merchants to raise prices.
b.
Britain allowed American ships to continue trading with the British West Indies, which boosted America’s economy.
c.
Britain opened many of its ports to American ships, which allowed Americans to increase trade with other European nations.
d.
Britain refused to participate in trade with America, which severely damaged the American economy.
 

 13. 

In 1784, officials from which country closed the lower Mississippi, which the United States utilized to ship goods to eastern markets?
a.
France
b.
Spain
c.
Britain
d.
Canada
 

 14. 

Which factors indicate that there was an economic depression in the United States after the Revolutionary War?
a.
Trade laws differed across states and each state followed its own interests.
b.
The country went deeper into debt as it raised taxes.
c.
The price of goods was rising but the value of money was decreasing.
d.
Trade activity was minimal and unemployment was on the rise.
 

 15. 

What is interstate commerce?
a.
when states follow their own trade interests
b.
when states have different trade laws
c.
the act of trade between two or more states
d.
the act of setting tariffs on trade between states
 

 16. 

The main cause of Shays’s Rebellion was the
a.
corruption of wealthy leaders, which divided the local government.
b.
collection of taxes on land to pay off war debts, which hurt farmers.
c.
overproduction of worthless paper money, which slowed the economy.
d.
inability of the Congress to regulate trade, which led to unemployment.
 

 17. 

What were Daniel Shays and his men protesting?
a.
the death penalty
b.
the use of debtors’ prisons
c.
federal control of the judicial system
d.
high taxes and heavy debts
 

 18. 

Why did Shays’s Rebellion target the Massachusetts Supreme Court?
a.
The courts were forcing farmers who were in debt to sell off their land.
b.
The courts were using farmers’ taxes to pay for new buildings.
c.
Judges were sentencing farmers to debtor’s prison without due process of law.
d.
Judges were taking money from corrupt lawyers to convict innocent farmers.
 

 19. 

Which of these was a weakness in the Articles of Confederation exposed by Shays’s Rebellion?
a.
the imbalance of power between the three branches of government
b.
the dominance of an overly powerful executive branch
c.
the problem of states having more power than the federal government
d.
the abuse of force by the national army against the nation’s citizens
 

 20. 

Shays’s Rebellion led most Americans to call for a
a.
ban on rebellious activity.
b.
federal judiciary.
c.
national guard.
d.
stronger central government.
 

 21. 

After Shays’ Rebellion, some Americans admitted that the Articles of Confederation failed to
a.
create limited governments, in which all citizens were subject to the law.
b.
uphold the ideals of liberty set forth in the Declaration of Independence.
c.
expand suffrage to include women and free African Americans.
d.
preserve the rights laid out in the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.
 

 22. 

The Annapolis Convention of 1786 failed to answer the needs of the nation because
a.
many delegates did not attend the convention.
b.
the delegates did not agree on the role of the Congress.
c.
most states changed their positions after the convention.
d.
the Congress limited citizens’ liberties to prevent insurrection.
 

 23. 

The original purpose of the Constitutional Convention held in May 1787 in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall was to
a.
grant citizenship to free African Americans.
b.
draft a Constitution of the United States.
c.
distribute power equally among the states.
d.
improve the Articles of Confederation.
 

 24. 

Which of these important figures attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia?
a.
John Adams
b.
Patrick Henry
c.
Thomas Jefferson
d.
James Madison
 

 25. 

Under the Virginia Plan the structure of the national government would have been changed by the creation of a/an
a.
unicameral legislature with an equal number of delegates from each state.
b.
bicameral legislature in which the number of delegates per state would be based on a states’ population.
c.
strong judiciary with sovereignty over the other two branches of government.
d.
executive office the leader of which would have sole control of the nation.
 

 26. 

Which of the following proposals was part of the New Jersey Plan presented at the Constitutional Convention?
a.
Individual states would have to raise and fund their own armies.
b.
Individual states would be responsible for regulating commerce.
c.
Each state would have an equal voice in a unicameral legislature.
d.
Each state would have a say in nominating judges to the Supreme Court.
 

 27. 

The Three-Fifths Compromise
a.
freed three-fifths of slaves in the southern states.
b.
granted three-fifths of freed slaves the right to vote.
c.
determined how many representatives a state would have in the Congress by counting three-fifths of the state’s slave population.
d.
decided to give an extra delegate to each state that had banned the slave trade, giving northern states a three-fifths majority in the Congress.
 

 28. 

Many delegates from the southern states threatened to leave the Union if the Constitution
a.
lowered tariffs.
b.
banned the slave trade.
c.
included the word “slavery.”
d.
increased the government’s powers.
 

 29. 

What did the Commerce Compromises decide about the slave trade?
a.
The Compromises banned the practice of slavery in the United States.
b.
The Compromises allowed the importation of slaves to continue for twenty more years.
c.
The Compromises limited the practice of slavery to the northern states.
d.
The Compromises permitted exports of slaves to lands where the practice was legal.
 

 30. 

The framers of the Constitution created a system of checks and balances to
a.
outline the powers held by each branch of government.
b.
keep any one branch of government from becoming too powerful.
c.
give the people an opportunity to control the branches of government.
d.
strengthen the powers held by each branch of government.
 

 31. 

The framers of the Constitution granted legislative power to the
a.
Congress.
b.
President.
c.
Supreme Court.
d.
state governments.
 

 32. 

What is federalism?
a.
a government system where the central government holds supreme power
b.
a system that keeps each branch of government from obtaining too much power
c.
the sharing of power between a central government and the states of a country
d.
the part of government responsible for making the laws of a country or nation
 

 33. 

What problem did Antifederalists have with the Constitution?
a.
They felt that the central government had been given too much power.
b.
They felt that too many rights were guaranteed to individual citizens.
c.
They felt that merchants were not provided with enough protection.
d.
They felt that the nation should return to the Articles of Confederation.
 

 34. 

What was George Mason’s position toward the Constitution?
a.
He opposed it, as he thought the Constitution ignored individual rights.
b.
He opposed it, as he thought the Constitution gave to much power to individual states.
c.
He supported it, as he thought the Constitution balanced power between the federal government and individual states.
d.
He supported it, as he thought the Constitution created a strong, centralized government.
 

 35. 

What position did Federalists hold toward the new constitution?
a.
They condemned its authors’ disregard of individual rights.
b.
They praised the way it balanced power among different branches of government.
c.
They criticized the excessive control it gave to the central government.
d.
They defended the economic independence it granted to the individual states.
 

 36. 

The Federalist Papers attempted to reassure Americans about the new federal government created under the Constitution by saying that the government would
a.
be more like Great Britain’s.
b.
not overpower the states.
c.
one day abolish slavery in the nation.
d.
grant the states political independence.
 

 37. 

Which of the following ideas was argued by James Madison in the Federalist Papers?
a.
The new Constitution would place all power in the hands of the few.
b.
The power of the central government should be limited as much as possible.
c.
The addition of a bill of rights to the Constitution would address concerns about protecting individual rights.
d.
The nation’s diversity would have prevented any single group from gaining too much power.
 

 38. 

The Bill of Rights is the document
a.
added to the Constitution to protect citizens’ rights.
b.
used to limit the powers of state governments.
c.
outlining the rights of the federal government.
d.
stating the ways in which citizens can participate in government.
 

 39. 

Some Federalists opposed the idea of a bill of rights because they thought the
a.
Constitution rejected individual rights.
b.
Constitution was already a bill of rights.
c.
Bill of Rights would have ignored slavery.
d.
Bill of Rights would have changed the Constitution.
 

 40. 

An amendment to the Constitution is a/an
a.
suggested addition.
b.
official change.
c.
legal clarification.
d.
judicial opinion.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 41. 

__________________’s ideas were included in the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. (George Mason/Thomas Jefferson)
 

 

 42. 

Great Britain forced American merchants to pay high ____________ on imports and exports and closed many of its ports to American ships in the late 1700s. (tariffs/prices)
 

 

 43. 

________________ led a forced shutdown of the state Supreme Court in Springfield, Massachusetts to protest the way the state had decided to pay its debts. (Daniel Shays/James Wilson)
 

 

 44. 

To stop larger states from gaining too much power in the federal government, William Paterson proposed the _________________ Plan at the Constitutional Convention. (Virginia/New Jersey)
 

 

 45. 

A series of anonymously written essays called the __________________ tried to reassure Americans that a strong central government would not overpower the states. (Federalist Papers/Observations on the New Constitution)
 

 

Short Answer
 

 46. 

What were the Articles of Confederation? What issue slowed the ratification of the Articles of Confederation?
 

 47. 

How did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 affect the practice of slavery in America?
 

 48. 

How did the  Three-Fifths Compromise propose to solve the problem of determing state population for representation in the national legislature?
 

 49. 

The Constitution created a system of checks and balances for the federal government. What is the purpose of this system?
 

 50. 

Why did the Antifederalists oppose the Constitution?
 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
Bill of Rights
b.
federalism
c.
George Mason
d.
judicial branch
e.
popular sovereignty
f.
Great Compromise
g.
James Madison
h.
legislative branch
i.
Three-Fifths Compromise
j.
amendments
k.
New Jersey Plan
l.
Antifederalists
 

 51. 

branch of government responsible for interpreting the laws
 

 52. 

Federalist who attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall
 

 53. 

agreement created a two-house legislature
 

 54. 

opposed the Constitution because it did not have a section protecting individual rights
 

 55. 

official changes made to the Constitution
 

 56. 

agreement made to determine the number of delegates a state would have in Congress
 

 57. 

sharing of power between central and state governments
 

 58. 

branch of government that proposes and passes the laws
 

 59. 

created to protect the rights of citizens
 

 60. 

idea that political power belongs to the people
 



 
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