Name: 
 

NHPT11



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

What helped push the American fur trade to move westward in the early 1800s?
a.
Fur companies wiped out the beaver population in the East in their effort to meet European demand for the popular “high hat.”
b.
The American Fur Company sent mountain men to the West in its effort to beat competitors from Europe and the East.
c.
Fur trappers called “mountain men” wanted to be the first to map western territory and asked the American Fur Company to sponsor their journey.
d.
Native American trappers from the Pacific Northwest were acclaimed for their skill and eastern companies wanted to know their secrets.
 

 2. 

Who were mountain men?
a.
western fur traders and trappers
b.
supporters of low tariffs on fur
c.
eastern settlers who poured into Oregon Country
d.
western explorers who mapped the Rocky Mountains
 

 3. 

The U.S. government helped traders traveling on the Santa Fe Trail by
a.
issuing travel insurance to protect the traders’ belongings.
b.
granting an allowance to cover basic travel expenses.
c.
lowering taxes on the goods bought before the trip.
d.
sending troops to protect against Native American attacks.
 

 4. 

Which of the following put an end to American fur trading in the 1840s?
a.
Beaver fur went out of fashion and demand fell.
b.
Spain and Russia claimed the Pacific Northwest.
c.
Great Britain heavily taxed the fur trade in Oregon Country.
d.
Native American attacks drove trappers from the Northwest.
 

 5. 

Which of the following statements was true of the Oregon Trail?
a.
It ran through the Sierra Nevada.
b.
It required protection by U.S. troops.
c.
It was a popular route for merchants.
d.
It took six months to travel.
 

 6. 

Study the map below and answer the question that follows.

mc006-1.jpg

Which trails were the same length and took the same amount of time to travel?
a.
the California and Oregon Trails
b.
the Santa Fe and Old Spanish Trails
c.
the Mormon and Santa Fe Trails
d.
the Oregon and Mormon Trails
 

 7. 

Mormons moved from New York to the West in the early 1830s in order to
a.
obey the Book of Mormon.
b.
prosper in the fur trade.
c.
seek out religious freedom.
d.
form an independent state.
 

 8. 

Which practice caused Mormons to be persecuted in the 1850s?
a.
the ritualistic slaughter of animals
b.
marriage to more than one wife
c.
the belief in more than one god
d.
morning prayer in public schools
 

 9. 

Brigham Young to became head of the Mormon Church immediately following the
a.
murder of leader Joseph Smith.
b.
outlawing of polygamy by the church.
c.
arrival of Mormons to the Great Salt Lake.
d.
discovery of the Book of Mormon.
 

 10. 

Father Hidalgo y Costilla’s rebellion in 1810
a.
started the Mexican antislavery movement.
b.
inspired the Mexican independence movement.
c.
promoted nonviolent revolution.
d.
overthrew the Spanish monarchy.
 

 11. 

Empresarios were
a.
Mexicans who opposed the revolution.
b.
agents who brought settlers to Texas.
c.
soldiers in the Texan army.
d.
supporters of manifest destiny.
 

 12. 

Who was Stephen F. Austin?
a.
empresario who founded a colony on the lower Colorado River in 1822
b.
only American to witness the signing of the Mexican constitution in 1824
c.
American agent who enforced Mexico’s laws on new settlers until 1830
d.
southern settler who spurred Texans to defy the ban on slavery in 1831
 

 13. 

Texan settlers disobeyed Mexican laws in the 1820s by
a.
bringing slaves with them.
b.
refusing to pay property taxes.
c.
building their own Protestant churches.
d.
helping other settlers enter Mexico illegally.
 

 14. 

Which of the following is true about the battle at the Alamo in 1836?
a.
The battle lasted only one day.
b.
Mexico suffered a harsh defeat.
c.
All of the Alamo’s defenders were killed.
d.
The Texan army captured General Santa Anna.
 

 15. 

Which of the following factors helped the Texans gain victory in the Battle of San Jacinto?
a.
Frontiersman Davy Crockett joined the Texan defenses.
b.
General Santa Anna had been imprisoned at the Alamo.
c.
Sam Houston’s men took the Mexican army by surprise.
d.
Prisoners at Goliad were released, adding to the Texan defenses.
 

 16. 

President Jackson refused to annex Texas at first because doing so would have
a.
upset the balance between free and slave states.
b.
encouraged wars of independence in other border areas.
c.
gone against the wishes of Congress.
d.
admitted to the British that western expansion had ended.
 

 17. 

Study the quotation below and answer the question that follows.

[It is America’s] manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole continent which Providence [God] has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty…”

In these words by writer John O’Sullivan, what does the phrase “manifest destiny” mean?
a.
clear choice
b.
obvious fate
c.
people’s future
d.
humanity’s goal
 

 18. 

How did the slavery issue get tied up with the doctrine of manifest destiny in the 1840s and ’50s?
a.
Southern slaveholders demanded government assistance in transporting slaves to the West.
b.
Slavery went against the democratic values implied by the philosophy of frontierism.
c.
Americans did not know if the institution of slavery would be allowed in the new territories.
d.
Southern slaveholders thought westward expansion would cause their region to lose power.
 

 19. 

Who were the Californios?
a.
California ranchers
b.
California missionaries
c.
colonists living in California
d.
Native Americans living in California
 

 20. 

What did the American expansionists’ slogan “Fifty-four forty or fight!” refer to?
a.
the line to which they wanted their northern territory to extend
b.
the line that marked the northern border of what is now California
c.
the number of prisoners they wanted Santa Anna to release
d.
the number of Native Americans whose deaths they wanted to avenge
 

 21. 

Why did some politicians support James K. Polk’s interest in annexing Oregon?
a.
Disputes over the U.S. border with Canada would be easier to settle.
b.
Merchants would benefit from a Pacific port for trade with China.
c.
Free and slave states had been out of balance since the annexation of Texas.
d.
Explorers reported spotting gold dust along the banks of the Columbia River.
 

 22. 

In the 1840s, President John Tyler fell out of favor with his party when he argued that the annexation of Texas would
a.
ease trading with Mexico.
b.
raise the number of free states.
c.
increase the power of southern slave states.
d.
suppress Texan independence movements.
 

 23. 

In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain. How did Mexican officials change Spanish policy in California as a result?
a.
They regulated the trade of cowhides, or “California banknotes.”
b.
They outlawed the production of wine.
c.
They challenged the removal of California Indians to ranchos.
d.
They terminated the mission system.
 

 24. 

Which of the following was true about the U.S. army at the beginning of the Mexican-American War?
a.
It greatly outnumbered the Mexican army.
b.
It was more highly experienced and better organized than the Mexican army.
c.
It was better equipped than the Mexican army.
d.
It could not attract volunteers.
 

 25. 

When U.S. Army captain John C. Frémont joined the revolt in Sonoma in 1846, he wanted California to
a.
be annexed by the United States.
b.
achieve independence.
c.
enter the United States as a slave state.
d.
remain under Mexican rule.
 

 26. 

What happened during the Bear Flag Revolt?
a.
A union of Spanish settlers rose up against Californios in the Mission district of San Francisco.
b.
General Taylor led his troops across the Rio Grande to protect Texas against a Mexican uprising.
c.
John C. Frémont’s mapping expedition fought off a black bear while crossing the Sierra Nevada.
d.
A small group of Americans seized the town of Sonoma and declared California’s independence.
 

 27. 

How did the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in 1848, affect the United States?
a.
It drew the border line that divides the United States and Mexico to this day.
b.
It increased the size of the United States by almost 25 percent.
c.
It enabled the United States to collect $18 million in property taxes from Mexico.
d.
It forced the United States to give up vast acres of territory in the West.
 

 28. 

How did the Gadsden Purchase benefit the United States?
a.
It promised to safeguard the property rights of longtime U.S. residents.
b.
It gave the United States hunting rights in the area of Texas north of the Rio Grande.
c.
It allowed the United States to purchase the northern part of present day Arizona.
d.
It secured a southern route for a transcontinental railroad on American soil.
 

 29. 

Which challenge did Mexican Americans face when American settlers poured into the Southwest after the Mexican War?
a.
Mexican land laws differed from U.S. land laws, which led to much confusion.
b.
Mexican holidays were not recognized by the American settlers.
c.
Mexican Americans were persecuted because they were mostly Roman Catholic.
d.
Mexican Americans had no rights over the land and were legally evicted.
 

 30. 

Which of the following shows how various cultures shaped one another in the Southwest after the Mexican Cession?
a.
American settlers taught Native Americans about mining in the mountains.
b.
American settlers introduced saddles to Mexican ranchers.
c.
Communities regularly celebrated both Mexican and American holidays.
d.
Communities printed laws in Native American languages.
 

 31. 

How did Brigham Young’s influence resolve the western dispute over water rights?
a.
He supported the eastern tradition of equal access to water.
b.
He set a strict code of water rights favoring the good of the community over that of individuals.
c.
He established that dams and canals would be privately owned.
d.
He set a tax on the public use of water and river navigation, and restricted large-scale agriculture.
 

 32. 

Why did a growing number of Americans travel the California Trail from the 1830s to the 1840s?
a.
Recently published Anglo-Californian guidebooks persuaded settlers to move to the region.
b.
Taken by the spirit of “manifest destiny,” many Americans decided to settle permanently at the continent’s western edge.
c.
American and Mexican merchants would meet in California to trade factory-made goods for precious coins, hides, and tallow.
d.
American cattle ranchers were attracted by the Spanish government’s promise of Mexican land.
 

 33. 

What lesson might a western traveler have learned from the story of the Donner party?
a.
Don’t take shortcuts.
b.
Travel with a compass.
c.
Don’t drink the water.
d.
Go west in the spring.
 

 34. 

Which description fits the group of people known as “forty-niners”?
a.
gold-seekers from America and abroad who migrated to California
b.
middle-aged married men with previous gold-mining experience
c.
individual prospectors of California gold-mining sites
d.
Mexicans and South Americans who immigrated to find gold
 

 35. 

Which of these statements about the consequences of the Gold Rush years is true?
a.
The population of San Francisco grew to more than 25,000.
b.
Mexicans and South Americans came to make up the largest foreign group in the mining region.
c.
The vast majority of gold-rush miners left California and took their earnings to their families back east.
d.
The large amount of gold in circulation in California caused the price of gold to drop.
 

 36. 

Women generally made money in mining communities by
a.
placer mining.
b.
operating boardinghouses.
c.
running casinos.
d.
manufacturing clothes.
 

 37. 

Placer mining is the
a.
search for gold by washing gravel.
b.
excavation of underground tunnels for gold.
c.
search for places likely to have gold.
d.
examination of a mineral to see if it is gold.
 

 38. 

What happened to California’s population as a result of the Gold Rush?
a.
The population grew, but not as much as it had during the Spanish and Mexican periods of settlement.
b.
The population boomed during “gold fever,” but declined just as quickly because of inflation.
c.
Immigrants and Americans flocked to California to “get rich quick” and stayed to build a stable frontier society.
d.
Californios and Native Americans still outnumbered immigrants and Americans after the Gold Rush.
 

 39. 

As a result of the population explosion of the “gold fever” years, California became
a.
eligible for statehood.
b.
richer than any other region in the country.
c.
more populous than any other region in the country.
d.
off limits to new immigrants.
 

 40. 

What role did the transcontinental railroad play in California’s development?
a.
It contributed to California’s population explosion by bringing settlers to the West in the mid-1850s.
b.
It slowed down California’s economy because it took two decades and many thousands of dollars to complete.
c.
It gave California’s economy the means to grow by connecting the state to the rest of the country.
d.
It damaged California’s environment by requiring the development of coal mining and timber industries.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 41. 

Astoria was one of the earliest settlements in what would become _____________________ Country. (Santa Fe/Oregon)
 

 

 42. 

The American Fur Company bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who came to be known as __________________. (mountain men/empresarios)
 

 

 43. 

The practice of polygamy caused ______________ to be persecuted in the 1850s. (Mormons/Catholics)
 

 

 44. 

Texans suffered a striking defeat by the Mexican army in the battle of ______________________. (the Alamo/San Jacinto)
 

 

 45. 

“Obvious fate” is another way of saying ____________________________. (apparent future/manifest destiny)
 

 

 46. 

American expansionists cried “Fifty-four forty or fight!” in reference to the line to which they wanted _________________ to extend. (their northern territory/the Gadsden Purchase)
 

 

 47. 

In the presidential election of 1844, _____________________ of Tennessee was chosen to run by the _________________ Party. (James K. Polk, Democratic/Henry Clay, Whig)
 

 

 48. 

With the ____________________, the U.S. government was able to buy the southern parts of what is now Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million. (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo/Gadsden Purchase)
 

 

 49. 

_____________________ were gold-seekers from America and abroad who migrated to California. (Gold rushers/Forty-niners)
 

 

 50. 

The construction of the first transcontinental railroad in 1869 helped _______________________ create a strong economy. (Californians/Texans)
 

 

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 51. 

The American fur trade moved westward in the early 1800s because fur companies wiped out the beaver population in the East in their effort to meet European demand for the popular “high hat.”
 

 52. 

Antonio López de Santa Anna started a colony on the lower Colorado River in 1822.
 

 53. 

President Andrew Jackson refused to annex Texas, despite popular and congressional support.
 

 54. 

The U.S. government sent troops to protect traders on the Santa Fe Trail from the threat of Native American attacks.
 

 55. 

After 1824, Mexico’s heavy taxation of settled lands created conflicts between the Mexican government and American settlers in Texas.
 

 56. 

One way in which Americans made life difficult for Chinese immigrants was by prohibiting them from opening their own businesses.
 

 57. 

Mexican officials did not want many Americans to settle in California, but they gave Swiss immigrant John Sutter permission to start a colony near the Sacramento River in 1839.
 

 58. 

As a result of the population explosion of the “gold fever” years, California became eligible for statehood.
 

 59. 

The transcontinental railroad contributed to California’s population explosion by bringing settlers to the West in the mid-1850s.
 

 60. 

A placer miner was employed to discover the places that were most likely to contain gold.
 

Short Answer
 

 61. 

What challenges did traveling the Oregon Trail present to pioneers and their families?
 

 62. 

What was the outcome of Father Hidalgo y Costilla’s rebellion? What did it accomplish?
 

 63. 

In 1844, the Whigs chose Henry Clay of Kentucky as their presidential candidate and the Democratic Party chose James K. Polk. What was the difference between the two candidates? What caused Polk to narrowly defeat Clay?
 

 64. 

In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain. What happened to the mission system and lands as a result?
 

 65. 

After the Mexican-American War, many American settlers poured into the Southwest. Explain how differences in land laws and legal concepts caused conflicts with Mexican American landowners.
 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
the Alamo
b.
Stephen F. Austin
c.
Antonio López de Santa Anna
d.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
e.
John Tyler
f.
Mexican Cession
g.
Gadsden Purchase
h.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
i.
Brigham Young
j.
manifest destiny
k.
Sonoma
l.
Battle of Buena Vista
 

 66. 

mission besieged during an important battle of the Texan Revolution
 

 67. 

increased the size of the United States by almost 25 percent
 

 68. 

city occupied during the Bear Flag Revolt
 

 69. 

gave the United States much of Mexico’s northern territory
 

 70. 

empresario who started a colony on the lower Colorado River in 1822
 

 71. 

Mexican general who was captured at the Battle of San Jacinto
 

 72. 

Mexican priest who led Native Americans and mestizos in a rebellion in 1810
 

 73. 

U.S. president who favored the annexation of Texas in 1844
 

 74. 

head of the Mormon Church after the murder of Joseph Smith
 

 75. 

idea that the United States was bound to expand to the Pacific Ocean and spread democracy
 



 
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