Class Notes
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1 EMS Systems:
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the origins and present-day
structure of emergency medical care delivery systems. The emergency medical technician’s (EMT’s) roles,
responsibilities, and relationship to the emergency medical services (EMS) system as well as the EMT’s role in the
quality improvement process will be explained, in addition to a description of other levels of EMS providers. The
foundations necessary for being a competent, effective, caring, and ethical EMT are presented. The interrelationships
of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s 14 components of the EMS system, per the EMS Agenda for the
Future, are outlined. Also described is the EMT’s impact on research, data collection, and evidence-based decision
making, as well as the EMT’s responsibilities as a student and a practitioner.
2 Workforce Safety and Wellness
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the importance of recognizing
important hazards; coping with physical and mental stress; assisting patients and families with the emotional aspect of
injuries, illness, and/or death; taking appropriate preventive actions to ensure personal safety; dealing with patients
and coworkers with sensitivity; taking proper precautions when dealing with infectious diseases; and preventing
on-the-job injuries.
3 Medical, Legal, and Ethical Issues
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the ethical responsibilities and
medicolegal directives and guidelines pertinent to the EMT. The EMT approach to patient care relating to
confidentiality, consent to treat, refusal of care, and advance directives will be explained. Organ donor systems and
policies, evidence preservation, and end-of-life issues will also be discussed.
4 Communications and Documentation
After students complete this chapter presentation and the related course work, they will have an understanding of
therapeutic communication; means to effective communication with specialty patients such as children, geriatrics, and
hearing and visually impaired patients; methods and procedures for effective communication; components of effective
written reports, types of written reports, and ways to correct errors found within written reports; documentation of
refusal of care; special reporting situations; use of medical terminology; communications systems and equipment;
regulations and protocols governing radio communications; and communication with medical control and hospitals
5 The Human Body
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will be able to describe and apply, in context,
the body planes, topographical anatomy, directional terms, and anatomic position. Students will be able to identify basic
anatomic structures and related functions and describe each body system, discussing the roles of the structures within
these systems and the interaction of body systems in maintaining the life support chain. Students will be able to discuss
possible consequences of illness and injury of these structures and systems on proper functioning of the body.
6 Life Span Development
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will have a fundamental understanding of the
physiological and psychosocial differences of each phase of human development. The students will be able to discuss
adaptations and strategies that they might apply to better assess and manage patients.
7 Principles of Pharmacology
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the significance and
characteristics of general pharmacology and will be able to identify, describe, and demonstrate the steps for
assisting/administering medications carried by the EMT.
8 Patient Assessment
After students complete this chapter presentation and the related course work, they will understand the scope and
sequence of patient assessment for medical and trauma patients and all the phases and components of patient
assessment. Please note that this chapter is divided into five sections: scene size-up, primary assessment, history
taking, secondary assessment, and reassessment.
9 Airway Management
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the need for proper airway
management, including recognizing and measuring adequate and inadequate breathing, maintaining an open airway,
and providing artificial ventilation. Students will be able to demonstrate basic competency in applying these concepts to
appropriate care through the use of airway adjuncts, suction equipment, oxygen equipment and delivery systems, pulse
oximetry, CPAP, and resuscitation devices
10 Shock
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will have an understanding of the different types
and causes of shock, the process of perfusion, the signs and symptoms associated with shock, application of the
assessment process with the shock patient, and the general and specific emergency medical care provided to patients
experiencing shock
11 BLS Resuscitation
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will have reviewed the basic life support (BLS)
procedures for adults, infants, and children. Please note that BLS knowledge is a prerequisite for the course and that
this chapter should serve as a review.
12 Medical Overview
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the need for proper assessment
techniques when called to patients with a chief complaint of a medical nature.
13 Respiratory Emergencies
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the significance and
characteristics of respiratory emergencies in infant, child, and adult populations. Students should be able to
demonstrate a fundamental comprehension on the following topics: respiratory anatomy and physiology,
pathopysiology, signs and symptoms of various respiratory etiologies (eg, asthma, COPD, pneumonia), and the
assessment and management necessary to provide basic care in the prehospital setting.
14 Cardiovascular Emergencies
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the significance and
characteristics of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system; cardiovascular emergencies; the
pathophysiology of respiration and perfusion; signs and symptoms of the most common cardiac conditions; the
indications, contraindications, and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs); and the general care of a patient
experiencing a cardiac emergency. The student should also be able to apply this fundamental knowledge to patient
assessment and management during in-classroom scenarios.
15 Neurologic Emergencies
After students complete this chapter presentation and the related course work, they will understand the significance and
characteristics of the following: anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, common disease processes (strokes,
seizures, headaches, and altered mental status); assessment and basic care management involving patients with
neurologic emergencies (including performing tests for speech, facial movement, and arm movement); and assistance of
the ALS provider in managing these neurologic emergencies.
16 Gastrointestinal and Urologic Emergencies
Students who complete this chapter presentation and the related course work will understand the concept of the
following: anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and renal systems. Students should be able to
assess and manage various patient populations with numerous related gastrointestinal/genitourinary complaints, some
of which include but are not limited to direct or referred abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, shock related to
acute (medical versus trauma) or chronic gastrointestinal disorders, hemorrhage, peritonitis, and complications related
to the renal system (renal dialysis).
17 Endocrine and Hematologic Emergencies
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the significance and
characteristics of diabetes, sickle cell disease, clotting disorders, and the complications associated with each. Students
should be able to demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. They should be able to
list the appropriate steps for assessment and prehospital treatment of diabetic emergencies. Students should also be
able to discuss hematologic emergencies, and describe the four main types of sickle cell crises (vaso-occlusive,
aplastic, hemolytic, and splenic sequestration) and the two primary types of clotting disorders (thrombophilia and
hemophilia).
18 Immunologic Emergencies
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the anatomy, physiology, and
pathophysiology of hypersensitivity disorders and anaphylactic reactions. Additionally, students will have the knowledge
and skills to recognize and manage hypersensitivity disorders and anaphylactic reactions.
19 Toxicology
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will be familiar with the classes of compounds
involved in substance abuse and poisonings, the routes by which poisons enter the body, and the signs, symptoms,
assessment, and treatment for various poisoning emergencies.
20 Psychiatric Emergencies
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will be able to recognize behaviors that pose a
risk to the EMT, patient, or others and the basic principles of the mental health system. Additionally, students will have
the knowledge and skills to successfully assess and manage patients suffering from a psychiatric emergency within the
legal parameters of their scope of practice.
21 Gynecologic Emergencies
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the anatomy and physiology,
including the developmental changes during puberty and menopause, of the female reproductive system and identify
and describe assessment and treatment for gynecologic emergencies. Special considerations and precautions that an
EMT must observe when arriving at the scene of a suspected case of sexual assault or rape are also discussed.
22 Trauma Overview
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will have an understanding of the basic concepts
of energy and its effect on the human body, the general injury patterns associated with different types of impacts, falls,
and penetrating trauma, and the basic application of laws of physics on the assessment of trauma patients. Students will
analysis of evidence gathered in scene size-up simulations. Students will also understand some common injury patterns
to major body systems.
23 Bleeding
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the structure and function of the
circulatory system, the significance and characteristics of bleeding, the importance of personal protective equipment
when treating a bleeding patient, the characteristics of external and internal bleeding, how to conduct a patient
assessment, and methodologies for controlling bleeding.
24 Soft Tissue
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will have an understanding of types of open and
closed soft-tissue injuries, how to care for soft-tissue injuries, including the use of dressings and bandages, the
assessment and care of different types of burns including thermal, chemical, and electrical burns.
25 Face and Neck
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand how to manage trauma-related
issues with the face and neck. The student will learn how to recognize life threats associated with these injuries and the
correlation with head and spinal trauma. The curriculum includes detailed anatomy and physiology of the head, neck,
and eye, and discusses injuries including trauma to the mouth, penetrating neck trauma, laryngotracheal injuries, and
facial fractures. The chapter also includes information on dental injuries and blast injuries to the eye. Management of
common eye injuries such as foreign objects, puncture wounds, lacerated eyelids, burns, impaled objects, and
complications from blunt trauma are included.
26 Head and Spine
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand how to manage trauma-related
issues with the head and spine. The student will learn how to recognize life threats associated with these injuries as well
as the need for immediate spinal stabilization and, potentially, airway and breathing support. The curriculum includes
detailed anatomy and physiology of the nervous system and the pathophysiology, assessment, and management of
traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. This chapter provides detail about traumatic brain injury (TBI), including initial
mechanism of injury, and primary (direct) versus secondary (indirect) injury. Transport considerations are discussed
with a focus on potential deterioration. This chapter is skills intensive with detail on bandaging, traumatic airway control,
manual in-line stabilization, placement of a cervical collar, immobilization of the patient lying, sitting, or standing, and
helmet removal.
27 Chest Injuries
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand how to manage a patient with
chest trauma. The student will learn how to recognize life threats associated with these injuries and how to provide
immediate intervention. The curriculum includes a detailed description of the anatomy and physiology of the chest and
underlying organs as well as the pathophysiology, complications, assessment, and management of chest injury.
Age-related issues are discussed specific to pediatric and geriatric chest trauma. This chapter also provides information
on incidence (morbidity and mortality) and a detailed discussion of blunt versus penetrating or open trauma. Specific
injuries discussed include sucking chest wound, pneumothorax, tension pneumothorax, hemothorax, flail chest, and
pericardial tamponade.
28 Abdominal and Genitourinary Injuries
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand how to manage a patient with
abdominal and genitourinary trauma. The student will learn how to recognize life threats associated with these injuries
and the need for immediate intervention. The curriculum includes detailed anatomy and physiology of the abdominal
and genitourinary systems as well as the pathophysiology, complications, assessment, and management of abdominal
and genitourinary injuries. The assessment section is very comprehensive and follows the primary and secondary
model. Specific injuries discussed include blunt versus penetrating mechanisms, evisceration, impaled object, injuries to
external genitalia, vaginal bleeding secondary to trauma, and sexual assault. Emergency care skills include
management of blunt abdominal injury, penetrating abdominal injury, and abdominal evisceration.
29 Orthopaedic Injuries
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the anatomy and physiology of
the musculoskeletal system. They will have learned the proper assessment for a suspected and obvious injury. They will
have learned general and specific types of musculoskeletal injuries including fractures, sprains, and dislocations, with
associated signs, symptoms, and emergency treatment including the use of splints, PASG, and traction splints
30 Environmental Injuries
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the physiology of environmental
injuries. They will have learned the proper assessment and management of general and specific types of environmental
emergencies including hypothermia, local cold injuries such as frostbite, and heat exposure illnesses such as
heatstroke. They will learn the associated signs and symptoms and emergency treatment of drowning; diving
emergencies; high-altitude sickness; lighting strikes; and bites and envenomations from spiders, hymenoptera (eg,
bees, yellow jackets, wasps, and ants), snakes, scorpions, ticks, and marine life
31 Obstetrics and Neonatal Care
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the anatomy and physiology of
the female reproductive system as it relates to pregnancy. They will learn the assessment and emergency treatment for
childbirth including stages of labor, normal delivery, complications of pregnancy, and neonatal evaluations and
resuscitation.
32 Pediatric Emergencies
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the anatomy and physiology of
the child as compared to the adult. They will learn the appropriate assessment and care for the types of illness and
injury affecting children of all ages, injury patterns based on size, and special body system injuries. They will also learn
the indicators of abuse and neglect, and the medical and legal responsibilities of an EMT.
33 Geriatric Emergencies
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the physiologic and psychological
changes that occur with the aging process. The student will also learn and understand the types of illness and injuries
common to the geriatric population. They will understand the GEMS triangle, use of advance directives, and signs and
symptoms of elder abuse.
Notes
34 Patients With Special Challenges
After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the special needs of patients with
developmental, sensory, and physical disabilities. They will understand the unique anatomy and physiology,
assessment, and treatment needed for these patients. The special care considerations for patients who rely on medical
technological assistance are discussed as well as considerations for the management of obese patients.